Earnings per share (EPS) ratio

Earnings per share (EPS) ratio measures how many dollars of net income have been earned by each share of common stock. It is computed by dividing net income less preferred dividend by the number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period.  It is a popular measure of overall profitability of the company and is usually expressed in dollars.


Earnings per share ratio (EPS ratio) is computed by the following formula:


The numerator is the net income available for common stockholders’ (net income less preferred dividend) and the denominator is the average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the year. It does not include preferred shares.

The formula of EPS ratio is similar to the formula of return on common stockholders’ equity ratio except the denominator of EPS ratio formula is the number of average shares of common stock outstanding rather than the average common stockholders’ equity.


Following data has been extracted from the financial statements of Peter Electronics Limited. You are required to compute the earnings per share ratio of the company for the year 2016.

Net income for the year 2016: $1,500,000

6% cumulative preferred stock outstanding on December 31, 2016: $3,000,000

$15 par value common stock outstanding on December 31, 2016: $2,376,000

The numbers of shares of both types of stock are same as they were on January 01, 2016 because company has not issued any new shares of common or preferred stock during the year.


From the above data, we can compute the earnings per share (EPS) ratio as follows:

= ($1,500,000 – $180,000)/ 158,400

= $8.33 per share

The EPS ratio is $8.33. It means every share of the common stock earns 8.33 dollars of net income.

Significance and Interpretation:

The shares are normally purchased to earn dividend or sell them at a higher price in future. EPS figure is very important for actual and potential common stockholders because the payment of dividend and increase in the value of stock in future largely depends on the earnings of the company. EPS is the most widely quoted and relied figure by investors. In most of the countries, the public companies are required to report EPS figure on the income statement. It is usually reported below the net income figure.

There is no rule of thumb to interpret earnings per share. The higher the EPS figure, the better it is. A higher EPS is the sign of higher earnings, strong financial position and, therefore, a reliable company to invest money. For a meaningful analysis, the analyst should calculate the EPS figure for a number of years and also compare it with the EPS figure of other companies in the same industry.  A consistent improvement in the EPS figure year after year is the indication of continuous improvement in the earning power of the company.

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16 Comments on Earnings per share (EPS) ratio

  1. ahmed haania

    useful … :@

  2. copperii@rocketmail.com

    good stuff,,,,thumbs up! and keep us up to date with current developments in the finance and accounting industry.

  3. follygold

    Nice explanation! What if the question includes details of long term debt,corporate income tax,rate of return of both interest and taxes on a firm’s asset and market value of the share?


    What does negative EPS indicate?

  5. Accounting For Management

    A negative EPS figure denotes that the company has lost money during the period for which EPS has been calculated. For example, if Company lost $5,000 during a particular period and the weighted average number of the shares outstanding during that period are 1000 than the EPS would be -$5.

    1. Shu

      what dose it mean a zero EPS?

  6. russy

    What is the fomula for rate of return on shareholders interest

  7. chandrima

    how to calculate eps when tax rate total assets turnover ratio no of equity shares and long term liabilities is given??

  8. Hamza

    I just wanna ask if the company had a net loss of $5,000 and the weighted avg of ordinary shares was 1,000 shares. Also there were $2000 preference dividends declared and paid for the same year. What is the calculation of the EPS

    Thank you very much

    1. umar

      Total EPS is $3. Negative.. Which means every share will earn a loss of $3 as dividend for share.. Remember profit and loss are shared among shareholders..

  9. Sivu

    So if one company has an eps of R416.30, the other has R396.70,how do I do the comparison of those companies which are both in the retail industry?for a particular time period.Also,what interpretation do I give for them.

  10. Sajid ramzna

    v. useful

  11. Sharvan Kumar

    Very Useful Information…..
    Thanks Sir…..


    Plz solve this question

    10% preference shares of 10 each : 500,000
    60,000 Equity shares of 10 each : 600,000

    Profit after tax at 50%
    Equity dividend paid 20%
    Market price per share 30

    FIND OUT :
    (a) Earning per share
    (b) Dividend per share
    (c) Dividend yield ratio
    (d) Earning yield ratio
    (e) Dividend payout ratio
    (f) Price earning ratio
    (g) Dividend cover
    (h) Market-to-Book ratio

  13. fay

    good staff thanks a lot

  14. carell

    where is 180,000 came from?

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