Explain the difference between variable and absorption costing. How unit product cost is computed under two methods?
Variable and absorption are two different costing methods. Almost all successful companies in the world use both the methods. Variable costing and absorption costing cannot be substituted for one another because both the systems have their own benefits and limitations.
These costing approaches are known by various names. For example, variable costing is also known as direct costing or marginal costing and absorption costing is also known as full costing or traditional costing.
The information provided by variable costing method is mostly used by internal management for decision making purposes. Absorption costing provides information that is used by internal management as well as by external parties like creditors, government agencies and auditors etc.
Computation of unit product cost under two methods:
Under absorption costing system, the product cost consists of all variable as well as all fixed manufacturing costs i.e., direct materials, direct labor and factory overhead (FOH). But when variable costing system is used, the fixed cost (both manufacturing and non-manufacturing) is treated as a period or capacity cost and therefore not included in the product cost.
Following exhibition summarizes the difference between variable costing and absorption costing:
Variable versus absorption costing
For further clarification of the concept, consider the following examples:
Peter company manufactures and sells 5000 units of product X per year . Suppose one unit of product X requires the following costs:
Direct materials: $5 per unit
Direct labor: $4 per unit
Variable manufacturing overhead: $1 per unit
Fixed manufacturing overhead: $20,000 per year
The unit product cost of Peter company under two costing approaches can be computed as follows:
Absorption Costing: $5 + $4 + $1 + $4* = $14
Variable Costing: $5 + $4 + $1 = $10
* $20,000 / 5,000
Notice that the fixed manufacturing overhead cost has not been included in the unit cost under variable costing system but has been included under absorption costing system. This is the primary difference between variable and absorption costing.
Let’s take another example.
Sunshine company produces and sells only washing machines. The company uses variable costing for internal reporting and absorption costing for external reporting. The data for the year 2022 is given below:
Direct materials: $150/unit
Direct labor: $45/unit
Variable manufacturing overhead: $25/unit
Fixed manufacturing overhead: $160,000 per year
Fixed marketing and administrative expenses: $110,000 per year
Variable marketing and administrative expenses: $15/unit sold
Company produced and sold 8,000 machines during the year 2022.
Required: Compute the unite product cost under variable costing and absorption costing.
(Try to solve on your own before seeing the solution)
*$160,000 / 8,000 Units = $20
Note: Marketing and administrative expenses are period costs and are not relevant in the computation of unit product cost.